Episode 72 – Hypertension

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Picone et al published a meta-analysis in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology discussing the accuracy of cuff blood pressures.

We cover core content on hypertension using the ACEP clinical policy on hypertension, Rosen’s (9th ed) Chapter 74 “Hypertension,” and Tintinalli (8th ed),  Chapter  57 “Systemic Hypertension” Chapter 59 “Aortic Dissection and Related Aortic Syndromes” as guides. Check out this FOAM review of hypertension in the ED.

 

References:

  1. Zampaglione B, Pascale C, Marchisio M, Cavallo-Perin P. Hypertensive urgencies and emergencies: prevalence and clinical presentation. Hypertension. 1996;27(1):144-147.
  2. Chiang WK, Jamshahi B. Asymptomatic hypertension in the ED.Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16 (7):701-704.
  3. Masood S, Austin PC, Atzema CL. A Population-Based Analysis of Outcomes in Patients With a Primary Diagnosis of Hypertension in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;68(3):258–267.e5.
  4. Wolf SJ, Lo B, Shih RD, Smith MD, Fesmire FM. Clinical policy: Critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients in the emergency department with asymptomatic elevated blood pressure. Ann Emerg Med 2013;62(1):59–68.
  5. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.  Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2004 Aug. Report No.: 04-5230
  6. Heath I. Hypertensive Urgency — Is This a Useful Diagnosis ? JAMA Intern Med 2016;8(1):13–4.
  7. Patel KK, Young L, Howell EH, et al. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients Presenting With Hypertensive Urgency in the Office Setting. JAMA Intern Med.  2016;176(7):981–8.
  8. Nakprasert P, Musikatavorn K, Rojanasarntikul D, Narajeenron K, Puttaphaisan P, Lumlertgul S. Effect of predischarge blood pressure on follow-up outcomes in patients with severe hypertension in the ED. Am J Emerg Med. 2016;34(5):834–9.
  9. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL et al.  2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults:  Report From the Panel Members Appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8).  JAMA. 2014;311(5):507-520.
  10. Ogedegbe G, Shah NR, Phillips C et al. Comparative Effectiveness of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Based Treatment on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hypertensive Blacks Versus Whites. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 66(11):1224-1233. 2015.
  11. Flack JM, Sica DA, Bakris G et al. Management of High Blood Pressure in Blacks: An Update of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks Consensus Statement. Hypertension. 56(5):780-800. 2010.

 

#dasSMACC – Pulmonary Embolism, Pulmonary Edema, TEE, and Pediatric Cardiology

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We are in Berlin for #dasSMACC and have lots of pearls to share from the speakers at this amazing conference.  Talks will be released for free on the SMACC podcast over the next year, but this podcast holds some pearls that we thought couldn’t wait.

Dr. Leanne Harnett on Pulmonary Embolism with Right Heart Thrombus (PE with RHT)

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Drs. Reuben Strayer (@emupdates) and Scott Weingart (@emcrit) on Acute Hypertensive Pulmonary Edema

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Dr. Michele Domico on Pediatric Cardiology Emergencies

Pediatric Cardiology dasSMACC

Dr. Haney Mallemat (@CriticalCareNow) on Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) during Cardiac Arrest

TEE

pulsecheck2

For more on pulse checks, see this blog post.

References:

  1. Athappan G, Sengodan P, Chacko P, Gandhi S. Comparative efficacy of different modalities for treatment of right heart thrombi in transit: a pooled analysis. Vasc Med. 2015;20(2):131-8.
  2. Wilson SS, Kwiatkowski GM, Millis SR, Purakal JD, Mahajan AP, Levy PD. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(1):126-131.

Episode 68 – Ischemic Electrocardiograms

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The Free Open Access Medical Education (FOAM)

In the United States, electrocardiograms (ECGs) performed in triage must often be signed by an attending emergency physician shortly after they are performed.  This creates a significant number of interruptions which are not only inconvenient but also distracting for physicians taking care of patients.  A recent study in Academic Emergency Medicine by Hughes and colleagues looks at the potential clinical relevance of having emergency physicians sign ECGs read “normal” by the computer software.  FOAM reviews of this article can be found here:

Triage ECGs

The Core Content

Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th ed), Chapter 78 and the 2013 AHA Guidelines

ST Elevation MI (STEMI) 

This is the time-dependent infarction with current goals to obtain reperfusion within 90 minutes (or 60 minutes at some hospitals).

STEMI

However, there are more kinds of ischemia than just STEMI and many of these can be subtle. Close examination of even normal ECGs is necessary.

T wave Ischemia

STEMI mimics

Rosh Review Emergency Board Review Questions

A 45-year-old man presents with chest pain. Which of the following features most strongly predicts acute coronary syndrome as the cause of his chest pain

A. History of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and tobacco use

B. Pleuritic pain

C. Pressure-like pain

D. Radiation to the right arm

Answer

D.

Chest pain is one of the most common presenting complaints to emergency departments. The causes of chest pain are varied and range from benign (e.g. muscle strain, costochondritis, pleurisy) to life-threatening (e.g. acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism). The emergency provider’s job is to carefully assess the patient with chest pain and rule out any life-threatening etiologies. As such, acute coronary syndrome must be considered on the differential of every patient presenting with chest pain. Acute coronary syndrome most commonly occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque is disrupted or eroded, resulting in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation at the site, resulting in diminished or absent flow within the affected vessel. Historical features are extremely important in helping categorize patients as low, moderate, or high risk for acute coronary syndrome, and performing a detailed history regarding chest pain complaints is critical. Low risk features include pleuritic, positional, reproducible, and sharp or stabbing pain. In addition, non-exertional pain and pain localized to a small inframammary area have a low likelihood of being cardiac in etiology. High risk features include chest pressure (positive likelihood ratio [LR+] 1.3), pain similar to prior cardiac pain (LR+ 1.8), and associated vomiting or diaphoresis (LR+ 1.9 and 2.0, respectively). The highest risk features include radiation to the right arm or shoulder (LR+ 4.7), left arm (LR+ 2.3), or both arms or shoulders (LR+ 4.1), and exertional chest pain (LR+ 2.4). Of the above choices, radiation to the right arm is the strongest predictor of a cardiac etiology of chest pain.

History of diabetes, hypertension, and tobacco use (A) are traditional cardiac risk factors that predict the lifetime risk of developing coronary artery disease. However, these risks factors are less helpful than historical features in predicting whether an acute presentation of chest pain is due to acute coronary syndrome. Pleuritic pain (B) is not a strong predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Pressure-like pain (C) is a high-risk feature but is less predictive or acute coronary syndrome than pain that radiates to the right arm.

References:

  1. Hughes KE, Lewis SM, Katz L, Jones J. Safety of Computer Interpretation of Normal Triage ECGs. Acad Emerg Med. 2016
  2. O’gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD, et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61(4):e78-140.

Episode 63 – Bradycardia

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Emergent transvenous pacing is a crucial skill for emergency physicians.  It may be daunting due to the pacing box and various catheters. We have found that  routinely rehearsing the procedure, reviewing where pacing equipment is in our departments, and where

In this episode we review the following videos:

  • Practical Pointers for Pacemaker Placement by Dr. Jason Nomura
  • Transvenous pacing video by Dr. Al Sachetti
  • Pacing 101 (Transcutaneous is Just Stupid) by Dr. Joe Bellezo on the Ultrasound Podcast
    • This podcast lays down the argument that transcutaneous pacing is stupid.  Transcutaneous pacing is difficult – patients are diaphoretic, capture rates may be 40%, and it takes a significant amount of energy. Further, it hurts.
      • However, in our opinion, there may be a role.  In this talk, Dr. Bellezo quotes a 1981 study, in which emergent pacers were placed in “6 minutes.”  Review of this study finds that this was actually 6 minutes, 45 seconds (closer to 7 minutes) [1].  This likely does not reflect the majority of emergency providers experience, certainly not ours, where the range is more often 15-30 minutes for the procedure.  Thus, transcutaneous pacing may be a temporizing measure as one locates the ultrasound, gathers the supplies, and prepares for transvenous pacing in the unstable patient.

transvenous pacing

pacing

Core Content

We delve into core content on bradycardias and heart blocks using Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 79 “Dysrthymias” and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 18  “Cardiac Rhythm Disturbances” as a guide.

bradycardias

bradycardia

 Rosh Review Emergency Board Review Questions

Question 1a.

A 71-year-old woman presents after a fall at home. Her electrocardiogram is shown below.

content_ecg_-3rd_degree_heart_block

Answer

Third Degree Heart block.

Question 2.

A. Administration of epinephrine

B. Defibrillation

C. Observation

  • D. Placement of transcutaneous pacer pads
Answer

D. The patient has third degree heart block. In third degree atrioventricular (AV) block, also known as complete heart block, there is no conduction through the AV node, and an escape pacemaker is responsible for the ventricular rate. On electrocardiogram, P waves occur at regular intervals, and QRS complexes occur at regular intervals, but there is no association between the P waves and QRS complexes. When the block occurs in the AV node, a junctional escape pacemaker takes over with a rate of 40-60 beats/minute, and the QRS complex is narrow. If the block occurs at the infranodal level, a ventricular escape pacemaker paces at a rate of 40 beats/minute or less. Infranodal blocks results in a wide QRS complex. Patients with third degree heart block require cardiac pacing, as the slow escape rhythm is rarely adequate to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion. Transcutaneous pacing should be initiated while arrangements for transvenous pacing are made. Third degree blocks are commonly associated with cardiac ischemia or infarction. A nodal third degree block (narrow QRS complex) is a complication of acute inferior wall myocardial infarction, and may last for several days. Extensive acute anterior wall infarction is associated with infranodal third degree blocks (wide complex QRS), indicating damage to the infranodal conduction system. When a third degree heart block is seen with acute myocardial infarction, mortality is increased.

Administration of epinephrine (A) is incorrect. Defibrillation (B) the treatment for cardiac arrest from ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia.  Observation (C) is incorrect since the patient’s slow heart rate is likely not adequate to maintain cardiac output.

Question 3.

A 56-year-man presents to the ED with right arm pain and some chest discomfort. The day prior to arrival, he tried using heavier weights at the gym. He has a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and COPD. In the ED, his vital signs are BP 136/90, HR 60, RR 16, and oxygen saturation 97% on room air. His rhythm strip is seen below. Which is the most appropriate management for this rhythm?

content_ecg_-_second_degree_heart_block_type_ii

A. Aspirin

B. Cardioversion

C. Observation

D. Temporary pacing

Answer

D. This ECG demonstrates type II second-degree heart block. Second-degree heart block is defined by one or more impulses not reaching the ventricles and is classified as type I and type II. Type II second-degree heart block, also known as Mobitz II, is caused by an infranodal conduction abnormality, most commonly in the bundle of His or the purkinje fibers. ECG findings demonstrate random dropped QRS complexes without any changes in the PR interval. Type II second-degree heart block carries a worse prognosis than type I second-degree heart block and necessitates treatment. Unlike type I, atropine has no effect on the His-Purkinje system and may worsen conduction. Temporary pacing is critical in this case because this rhythm can devolve to complete heart block. In the ED, transcutaneous or transvenous pacing should be instituted if the patient is symptomatic and there should be immediate consultation with a cardiologist. Patients with Mobitz II in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction should be treated with temporary pacing and revascularization; following revascularization most conduction abnormalities will improve or resolve and will not require permanent pacing.

Question 4.

A man who presents with syncope is placed on the cardiac monitor. On the monitor you note a repeating trend of 6 P waves, 5 of which are followed by a narrow QRS complex and 1 of which is not followed by a QRS complex. The PR interval during this trend progressively increases. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

A. First-degree AV block

B. Third-degree AV block

C. Type I second-degree AV block

D. Type II second-degree AV block

Answer

C. A key distinction between first-degree and second-degree heart block is that in first-degree block the P wave is always followed by a QRS complex. In other words, the ratio of P waves to QRS complexes is 1:1, or, the electrical signal from the atria always passes to the ventricles. In second-degree AV block, the electrical impulse sometimes gets to the ventricles. There are two main types of second-degree AV block. In Mobitz type I, or Wenckebach, second-degree block, there is a progressive beat-to-beat lengthening of the PR interval until a P wave does not conduct through the AV node. The absent conduction and resultant “missing” QRS complex is called a “dropped” QRS, which represents an absent beat of ventricular contraction. First-degree AV block (A) has a 1:1 ratio of P waves to QRS complexes. Mobitz type II second-degree heart block (D) is characterized by a nonconducted P wave which is not preceded by progressive PR interval prolongation. AV dissociation, or third-degree AV block (B), occurs when none of the P waves conduct through the AV node. This complete AV block occurs with separate atrial and ventricular rates. There is no discrete correlation or trend between P waves and QRS complexes.

References:

  1. Lang R, David D, Klein HO, et al. The use of the balloon-tipped floating catheter in temporary transvenous cardiac pacing. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1981;4(5):491-6.
  2. Roberts J and Hedges J. “Emergency Cardiac Pacing.” Roberts and Hedges’ Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine

Episode 59 – Syncope (and the PESIT study)

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The PESIT study in the New England Journal of Medicine stirred up controversy in the FOAM world earlier in October 2016.  In this episode we cover the following posts on this article on pulmonary embolism in syncope:

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Core Content

We delve into core content on syncope usingRosen’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) and Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine (8th edition) Chapter 52

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 Rosh Review Emergency Board Review Questions

An 83-year-old is being evaluated in the emergency department after an episode of syncope. The woman was preparing dinner when she felt her heart start to race. The next thing she remembers is waking up on the floor. She experienced a similar episode about three weeks ago. She has never had anything like this before. Her past medical history is remarkable for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hypothyroidism. Her medications include lisinopril, atorvastatin and levothyroxine. On physical exam her blood pressure is 142/83, heart rate 76/min, and respiration rate 13/min. Cardiac auscultation reveals no murmur. The remainder of her physical exam is normal. Electrocardiogram reveals normal sinus rhythm with left axis deviation. No cardiac rhythm abnormalities are detected. What is the most likely etiology of this patient’s syncope?

A. Aortic stenosis

B. Cardiac dysrhythmia

C. Orthostatic hypotension

D. Vasovagal

Answer

B. Cardiac dysrhythmia is the most likely cause of this woman’s syncope. Cardiac dysrhythmias are a common cause of syncope in the elderly population. It is characterized by a brief or absent prodrome and palpitations immediately preceding the event. Several episodes over a short period of time in someone with no history of syncope suggest a dysrhythmia. Given this patient’s short prodrome, palpitations and history of a previous similar event makes a cardiac dysrhythmia the most likely etiology.

Aortic stenosis (A) is unlikely the cause of her syncope. Aortic stenosis is associated with a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur. Syncope related to aortic stenosis typically occurs during exertion and is associated with very severe disease. This patient’s syncopal episode occurred while stationary. Additionally, she has no systemic symptoms of aortic stenosis.Vasovagal (D) is the most common cause of syncope in the general population. It is usually triggered by provoking factors such a blood draw or an intense emotion. Prodromal symptoms include feeling warm, sweating, nausea, and pallor. This woman does not report any of these symptoms. Orthostatic hypotension (C) causes syncope upon assuming an upright position from supine or sitting. It is often caused by hypovolemia, medications or autonomic nervous system disorders. This woman was standing while preparing dinner making orthostatic hypotension unlikely.

 

An 18-year-old woman presents after having a syncopal episode. She is complaining of a 2-day history of lower abdominal pain and vaginal spotting. Her BP is 86/42, HR is 128, RR is 18 breaths, and oxygen saturation is 99% on room air. She is drowsy, but answers questions appropriately. What is the most appropriate next step in management?

 

A. Establish large-bore IV access and administer an IV fluid bolus

B. Initiate rapid sequence induction and orotracheal intubation

C. Perform a bedside urine pregnancy testing

D. Perform an ultrasound of the abdomen to assess for free fluid

Answer

A. The patient is hypotensive and tachycardic. She is suffering from hypovolemic shock secondary to a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Therefore she requires immediate intravenous access and volume resuscitation with Lactated Ringer’s or normal saline.  Emergency Department management of unstable patients includes rapid assessment of the ABC’s (Airway, Breathing, Circulation). This patient is phonating, has a respiratory rate of 18 breaths per minute and an oxygen saturation of 99% on room air.  There is no concern that her airway or breathing is in immediate jeopardy, therefore she would not require immediate rapid sequence induction and orotracheal intubation (B). Although a bedside pregnancy test (C) and abdominal ultrasound (D) would help make a diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy, the next step would be to resuscitate the patient.

References

  1. De Lorenzo RA. “Syncope.” Chapter 15. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine (8 ed). pp 131-145
  2. Chapter 52. Tintinalli’s Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Review (8 ed).
  3. Serrano LA, Hess EP, Bellolio MF et al. Accuracy and Quality of Clinical Decision Rules for Syncope in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 56(4):362-373.e1. 2010.
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Episode 54 – The Pericardium

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We cover ultrasound guided pericardiocentesis using the posts from EMin5, CoreEM, and the Ultrasound Podcast.

Historically, pericardiocentesis is taught using a landmark based method; however, use of ultrasound guidance may increase success.  Experts recommend an approach wherever the largest pocket of fluid exists and each location has particular downsides to be aware of.

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Core Content

We delve into core content on the pericardium using Rosen’s (8th ed) Chapter 82 and Tintinalli (8th ed) Chapter 55.

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Generously Donated Rosh Review Questions

1.A 25-year-old man presents to the ED with chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Vital signs include BP 98/50 mm Hg, HR 136 beats/minute, RR 26 breaths/minute, and T 102.4°F. On auscultation, you hear rales to the mid-thorax bilaterally. Bedside cardiac ultrasound shows global hypokinesis and a small pericardial effusion. Which of the following organisms is the most common cause of this condition worldwide?

A. Coxsackievirus B

B. Mycobacterium tuberculosis

C. Plasmodium falciparum

D. Trypanosoma cruzi

  • Answers
    D. Trypanosoma cruz.  This patient presents with signs and symptoms of myocarditis accompanied by pericarditis. Myocardial injury results from inflammation of the myocardium. The most common etiology worldwide is Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The protozoan is spread by the reduviid bug, also known as the kissing bug as it feeds on the faces of those affected. Unfortunately, in many patients, the cause of myocarditis is idiopathic. Other noninfectious causes include connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma, toxins such as chemotherapy, cocaine, and heavy metals, and peripartum myocarditis. Symptoms often include a viral prodrome with fever, myalgias, and generalized weakness. Patients may present with chest pain, symptoms of acute heart failure, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, syncope, cardiogenic shock, or even sudden cardiac death. Diagnosis can be very difficult and patients often present to the ED multiple times prior to being diagnosed. An ECG may show global or segmental ST elevation, nonspecific ST segment and T wave changes, dysrhythmias, or conduction delays. Troponin and creatinine phosphokinase are often elevated. Echocardiography classically shows global hypokinesis. Management is primarily supportive; however, patients with new left bundle branch block or low ejection fraction may require a left ventricular assist device as a bridge to cardiac transplantation in some cases as these are poor prognostic indicators. The most common long-term sequelae of myocarditis is dilated cardiomyopathy.

2.A 56-year-old woman with a history of lymphoma presents to the Emergency Department at the recommendation of her primary care physician. During a routine visit, she had a chest X-ray that showed a “big heart.” She denies chest pain, shortness of breath, leg swelling, cough, orthopnea, or lightheadedness. Her vital signs include temperature 98.6 ºF, HR 88 beats/minute and regular, RR 14 breaths/minute, BP 121/89 mm Hg, and oxygen saturation 98% on room air. Her cardiac and neck exams are within normal limits. A bedside ultrasound reveals a small pericardial effusion. Which of the following is the next best step in management?

A.Lower extremity ultrasound

B. Pericardiocentesis

C. Reassurance and close follow up

D. Thoracic Surgery consultation

Answers
 C.  Reassurance and close follow up. The patient likely has a malignant pericardial effusion secondary to her known malignancy. Pericardial effusions are accumulations of fluid in the pericardial space that occur rapidly or gradually. Rapid accumulation of pericardial effusion can produce tamponade physiology and hypotension. This requires pericardiocentesis for emergent decompression of the effusion. Pericardial effusions that develop gradually often occur secondary to cancer (e.g. lymphoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma) or as the result of cancer treatment (e.g. radiation). Clinical signs or symptoms are determined by the rate of fluid accumulation. Asymptomatic pericardial effusions require no immediate treatment. Echocardiography is the diagnostic tool of choice. Chest X-ray may show a large cardiac silhouette indicating gradual fluid accumulation within a stretched pericardium. Malignant pericardial effusions can be managed in a variety of ways, including systemic or intrapericardial chemotherapy, or a pericardial window with pericardial resection. Lower extremity venous ultrasound (A) is an imaging modality to evaluating and diagnosing a deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This patient has no clinical features suggesting a DVT. Pericardiocentesis (B) is indicated in patients with symptomatic pericardial effusions or those who are experiencing tamponade physiology with hypotension. Thoracic surgery consultation (D) is not indicated since the patient is asymptomatic and hemodynamically stable.

3. A 4-year-old girl is brought to the ER by her parents due to lethargy. A week prior the girl had a cough and colds. Later symptoms progressed to include fever and malaise. She has been less active with decreased appetite. A few hours prior to arrival in the ER, she has been having difficulty of breathing. On exam, temperature is 38.3°C, respiratory rate of 35, heart rate of 126, blood pressure of 90/60, clear breath sounds, hepatomegaly, and poor pulses. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

A. Bronchiolitis

B. Dysrhythmia

C. Myocarditis

D.  Pneumonia

  • Answers
    The girl demonstrates signs and symptoms that are suspicious for myocarditis which is a condition that results from inflammation of the heart muscle. Majority of children present with acute or fulminant disease. Myocarditis can be caused by infectious, toxic, or autoimmune conditions. Common causes of viral myocarditis include enterovirus (coxsackie group B), adenovirus, parvovirus B19, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human herpes 6 (HHV-6). The presentation of the disease is variable and patients can present with broad symptoms that range from subclinical disease to cardiogenic shock, arrhythmias, and sudden death. There is usually a history of a recent respiratory or gastrointestinal illness within the previous weeks. There is a prodrome of fever, myalgia, and malaise several days prior to the onset of symptoms of heart dysfunction. Then patients present with heart failure symptoms that include dyspnea at rest, exercise intolerance, syncope, tachypnea, tachycardia, and hepatomegaly. Testing is focused on determining the severity of cardiac dysfunction and these include electrocardiography (ECG), cardiac biomarkers, chest radiography, and echocardiography. Confirmation of myocarditis is generally made by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or endomyocardial biopsy.

Dysrhythmia (B) usually presents with palpitations, syncope, chest pain. In the vignette, the girl’s symptoms are more consistent with a myocarditis. A primary dysrhythmia resulting in myocardial injury is differentiated from myocarditis by an endomyocardial biopsy. Bronchiolitis (A) is typically a disease in children younger than two years of age. It is diagnosed clinically with the characteristic findings of a viral upper respiratory prodrome followed by increased respiratory effort. Pneumonia (D) usually presents with respiratory complaints, particularly cough, tachypnea, retractions, and abnormal lung examination which were not present in the vignette.